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Chronology

11th cent. German settlers arrive in Hungary under the rule of King Stephen I
11th cent. Influx of German merchants, clerics and nobles to Prague
1098 The Cistercian Order is founded
12th cent. German miners and farmers are invited to live in the Zips area
1143 German settlers arrive in Transylvania at the invitation of the King of Hungary
1176 Duke Sobeslav II issues the 'Prague charter', granting rights to the city's Germans
13th cent. Polish towns and cities have a considerable proportion of German citizens
1200 The bishopric of Riga is founded by the nephew of the Archbishop of Bremen
1202 German crusaders in Riga found the Livonian Brothers of the Sword
1224 King Andreas II of Hungary grants special rights to the Siebenbürger Saxons in the 'Golden Charter'
1242 Mongol invasion: settlements in Hungary and Transylvania, including German ones, are destroyed
1321 'Staple right', which regulates trading, is granted to Leutschau in the Zips region
1330 Germans begin to settle in the Gottschee under the auspices of the Counts von Ortenburg
1348 Founding of Charles University in Prague, the oldest German-language university
15th cent. German farmers arrive in Lithuania at the invitation of local landowners
1484 Sculptor Veit Stoss from Nuremberg completes the high altar of St Mary's Basilica in Kraków
16th cent. Germans live in Russia as traders, doctors and civil servants
1542 The Reformation spreads through Transylvania, starting in the town of Kronstadt
1561 The Teutonic Order's state of Old Livonia is dissolved into the provinces of Estonia, Livonia, Ösel and Courland
1632 King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden founds the University of Dorpat
1683 The Turks besiege Vienna
1683 The first German colony in North America is founded: Germantown in Pennsylvania
1689 Emperor Leopold I issues a 'Patent of impopulation' for German settlers in Hungary
1716 Austria begins enlarging the fortress of Temeschwar
1718 Austria establishes the Banat region on its border with the Ottoman Empire
1722 Start of the first large migration of Swabians to the Banat under Emperor Karl VI
1734 The Landler, a Protestant community, are forcibly resettled in Siebenbürgen
1762 The world's first academy of mining is founded in Schemnitz in the western Carpathians
1763 Start of the second large migration of Swabians to Banat under Empress Maria Theresia
1763 Catherine the Great of Russia recruits German settlers for the Middle Volga region
1772 Galicia falls to Austria in the first partition of Poland
1775 Bukovina is purchased by Austria from the Ottoman Empire
1781 Start of the third large migration of Swabians to the Banat under Emperor Joseph II
1801 The University of Dorpat is refounded
1812 Tsar Alexander I invites German settlers to come to Bessarabia
1817 Friedrich Schlösser establishes central Poland's first textile factory in Ozorków
1817 Pietists from Swabia emigrate to Georgia
1819 Helenendorf, the first German settlement in Azerbaijan, is founded
1822 The German colony of Sarata is established in Bessarabia
1828 Ferdinand Friedrich, Duke of Anhalt-Köthen, founds Askania Nova in southern Russia
1830 German settlers begin going to Volhynia in large numbers
1840 Beginning of German migration to Dobruja
1851 German engineers and navvies work on building the Warsaw–St Petersburg railway
1854 Carl Scheibler founds a textile business in Lódz, which grows into the largest in Europe
1861 Serfdom is abolished in Russia
1875 The Franz-Josef University is founded in Czernowitz; it is the easternmost German-language university in Europe
1896 Pastor Theodor Zöckler founds charitable institutions, the Zöckler'sche Anstalten, in Stanislau, East Galicia
1900 Germans contribute to flourishing wine production in the Caucasus
1902 German Mennonites from southern Russia found a colony in western Siberia
1914 Beginning of the First World War